In Writing Secure PHP, I covered a few of the most common security holes in websites. It's time to move on, though, to a few more advanced techniques for securing a website. As techniques for 'breaking into' a site or crashing a site become more advanced, so must the methods used to stop those attacks.
Most hosting environments are very similar, and rather predictable. Many web developers are also very predictable. It doesn't take a genius to guess that a site's includes (and most dynamic sites use an includes directory for common files) is an www.website.com/includes/. If the site owner has allowed directory listing on the server, anyone can navigate to that folder and browse files.
Imagine for a second that you have a database connection script, and you want to connect to the database from every page on your site. You might well place that in your includes folder, and call it something like connect.inc. However, this is very predictable - many people do exactly this. Worst of all, a file with the extension ".inc" is usually rendered as text and output to the browser, rather than processed as a PHP script - meaning if someone were to visit that file in a browser, they'll be given your database login information.
Placing important files in predictable places with predictable names is a recipe for disaster. Placing them outside the web root can help to lessen the risk, but is not a foolproof solution. The best way to protect your important files from vulnerabilities is to place them outside the web root, in an unusually-named folder, and to make sure that error reporting is set to off (which should make life difficult for anyone hoping to find out where your important files are kept). You should also make sure directory listing is not allowed, and that all folders have a file named "index.html" in (at least), so that nobody can ever see the contents of a folder.
Never, ever, give a file the extension ".inc". If you must have ".inc" in the extension, use the extension ".inc.php", as that will ensure the file is processed by the PHP engine (meaning that anything like a username and password is not sent to the user). Always make sure your includes folder is outside your web root, and not named something obvious. Always make sure you add a blank file named "index.html" to all folders like include or image folders - even if you deny directory listing yourself, you may one day change hosts, or someone else may alter your server configuration - if directory listing is allowed, then your index.html file will make sure the user always receives a blank page rather than the directory listing. As well, always make sure directory listing is denied on your web server (easily done with .htaccess or httpd.conf).
Out of sheer curiosity, shortly after writing this section of this tutorial, I decided to see how many sites I could find in a few minutes vulnerable to this type of attack. Using Google and a few obvious search phrases, I found about 30 database connection scripts, complete with usernames and passwords. A little more hunting turned up plenty more open include directories, with plenty more database connections and even FTP details. All in, it took about ten minutes to find enough information to cause serious damage to around 50 sites, without even using these vulnerabilities to see if it were possible to cause problems for other sites sharing the same server.
Most site owners now require an online administration area or CMS (content management system), so that they can make changes to their site without needing to know how to use an FTP client. Often, these are placed in predictable locations (as covered in the last article), however placing an administration area in a hard-to-find location isn't enough to protect it.
Most CMSes allow users to change their password to anything they choose. Many users will pick an easy-to-remember word, often the name of a loved one or something similar with special significance to them. Attackers will use something called a "dictionary attack" (or "brute force attack") to break this kind of protection. A dictionary attack involves entering each word from the dictionary in turn as the password until the correct one is found.
The best way to protect against this is threefold. First, you should add a turing test to a login page. Have a randomly generated series of letters and numbers on the page that the user must enter to login. Make sure this series changes each time the user tries to login, that it is an image (rather than simple text), and that it cannot be identified by an optical character recognition script.
Second, add in a simple counter. If you detect a certain number of failed logins in a row, disable logging in to the administration area until it is reactivated by someone responsible. If you only allow each potential attacker a small number of attempts to guess a password, they will have to be very lucky indeed to gain access to the protected area. This might be inconvenient for authentic users, however is usually a price worth paying.
Finally, make sure you track IP addresses of both those users who successfully login and those who don't. If you spot repeated attempts from a single IP address to access the site, you may consider blocking access from that IP address altogether.
One excellent way to make sure that even if you have a problem with someone accessing your database who shouldn't be able to, you can limit the damage they can cause. Modern databases like MySQL and SQL Server allow you to control what a user can and cannot do. You can give users (or not) permission to create data, edit, delete, and more using these permissions. Usually, I try and ensure that I only allow users to add and edit data.
If a site requires an item be deleted, I will usually set the front end of the site to only appear to delete the item. For example, you could have a numeric field called "item_deleted", and set it to 1 when an item is deleted. You can then use that to prevent users seeing these items. You can then purge these later if required, yourself, while not giving your users "delete" permissions for the database. If a user cannot delete or drop tables, neither can someone who finds out the user login to the database (though obviously they can still do damage).
PHP contains a variety of commands with access to the operating system of the server, and that can interact with other programs. Unless you need access to these specific commands, it is highly recommended that you disable them entirely.
For example, the eval() function allows you to treat a string as PHP code and execute it. This can be a useful tool on occasion. However, if using the eval() function on any input from the user, the user could cause all sorts of problems. You could be, without careful input validation, giving the user free reign to execute whatever commands he or she wants.
There are ways to get around this. Not using eval() is a good start. However, the php.ini file gives you a way to completely disable certain functions in PHP - "disable_functions". This directive of the php.ini file takes a comma-separated list of function names, and will completely disable these in PHP. Commonly disabled functions include ini_set(), exec(), fopen(), popen(), passthru(), readfile(), file(), shell_exec() and system().
It may be (it usually is) worth enabling safe_mode on your server. This instructs PHP to limit the use of functions and operators that can be used to cause problems. If it is possible to enable safe_mode and still have your scripts function, it is usually best to do so.
Much as I hate to bring this point up again, it still holds true (and always will). Most of the above problems can be avoided through careful input validation. Some become obvious points to address when you assume everyone is out to destroy your site. If you are prepared for the worst, you should be able to deal with anything.
Ready for more? Try Writing Secure PHP, Part 3.